Education Survey (4) :Teachers position among different interests

Kompas p14

By: Dwi Erianto/Kompas R&D

Translated from Kompas article dated 13 May 2013

Commitment towards students, innovation and teacher’s creativity are the major supporting factors in the education process. Catharina (48) a teacher in a private SD in Medan having more than 20-year teaching experience admitted that she often has to be creative by making learning tools for her students.

“I duplicate all pictures related to the teaching material from newspapers and books in order for students to easily understand the materials being taught,” Catharina said.

Ani Kurniati (38), a teacher from a state SD in Yogyakarta, does the same thing. She tries to create a relaxed and fun environment every time she delivers teaching materials by positioning herself as a mother taking care of her children. It’s not rare for her to guide her students to understand the materials by doing practice outside the classroom.

Both examples describe teachers’ struggle. Ideally, a teacher not only teaches, but also becomes an educator for their students. By being a teacher, a teacher “only” teaches knowledge to the students. Whereas educating means that teachers are involved in the whole learning process and motivates the students to move forward.

According to Dedi Supriadi in the Educational Leadership Journal in 1993, the five measures of teacher professionalism are commitment to students and learning process, in-depth mastery of subjects and teaching methods, supervising learning results by using various methods of evaluation, systematic thinking and learning from experience, and becoming part of the professional community.

Of the various ideal criteria, it seems not all requirements can be met by teachers. From the survey result it can be seen that in general there is quite a strong commitment of teachers to their profession. The spirit of their calling to become educators for the country’s children is also implied. Nonetheless, various weaknesses related to teaching methods, ways of looking at things, or teaching  facilities become barriers.

The efforts to enhance professional competency of teachers are mainly conducted among teachers who teach in “A” or “B” accredited schools. As for teachers from “C” accredited schools, they tend to apply conventional teaching methods. Forty percent of teachers teaching in “C” accredited schools admitted that they rarely use learning kits while teaching their students.

There are still plenty of teachers, who opt to stay in the “convenient zone” of teaching by solely referring to textbooks. This survey shows that the majority of teachers (70 percent) still rely on teaching materials recommended by the Ministry of Education and Culture and materials from book publishers as source for teaching information. In other words, enriching materials is still at a minimum. More than half of the responsdents (61 percent) admitted rarely use the newspapers or works of literature as media for developing teaching innovation.

Types of Teachers

The ideal type of teacher may grow from a teacher who is typically moderate or open. In this survey, the indicator for a moderate teacher is having a more open perspective, such as agreeing that the learning process between teacher and students is like a dialog, the learning process is not confined in a classroom and knowledge competency of teachers is more important than others like certification. Teachers, who are typically conservative, tend to have the opposite view.

This survey finds that more than half of the respondents (57.5 percent) are closer to the moderate or open type. The restis conservative. Moderate types are usually seen in young teachers with  teaching experience of less than 15 years. As for conservative teachers, they tend to have more than 15-year teaching experience.

Moderate teachers tend to make the effort to enhance their competencies compared to conservative teachers. In preparing their lesson plan, for example 31 percent moderate teachers do this daily, while 29 percent conservative teachers do the same.

The majority of teachers that take this survey admitted they rarely take part in education and training to enhance their competency. This mostly happens to teachers from “C” accredited schools. Two third of the respondents from this group says that they rarely or never attended competency oriented education and training. The opposite happens to 43 percent of teachers from “B” accredited schools and 38 percent of teachers from “A” accredited schools. They attend education and training to increase their competency.

Welfare

It can’t be denied that teacher certification that have been conducted for the several past years is the first step for the government to acknowledge teacher professionalism. However, of the total number of teachers in Indonesia in 2011, which is 2.92 million, only 2.06 million teachers (70.5 percent) meet the certification requirements. Based on the data from the Ministry of Education and Culture, 1.1 million teachers are certified, of which only 731.000 receive certification allowance.

From this survey, almost all teachers consider the certification program as very important. In addition to being considered as professional acknowledgement, certification also means additional income. Two third of the respondents, who are certified, said that the income they receive is adequate compared to the teaching load, even 11 percent considered it more than enough compared to the teaching load. Meanwhile, more than half of the respondents that have not receive teacher certification admitted their income is smaller compared to their work load.

This shows that teacher certification program increase teachers’ welfare. Improved teacher’s welfare however does not necessarily mean improved quality of national education. Half of the teachers said that the quality of education is presently the same, while 15 percent said that it is worse compared to five years ago. Extra efforts must be made to improve national education without reducing teachers’ right.

How satisfied are you on your achievement as a teacher?

diagram 1

Adequacy of income with Teaching Load

diagram 2

Teachers’ experience in maintaining class dynamics (in percent)

diagram 3

Teachers’ freedom to make decision (in percent)

diagram 4

Survey Method

The survey was conducted from 24 March to 7 April 2013. As many as 512 teacher respondents were selected from 64 SD and 64 SMP from the cities of Medan, Palembang, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Bandung, Surabaya, Makassar and Kupang. The selection of state/private SD and SMP were systematic after having grouped schools with “B” accreditation (55%), “A” accreditation (30%) and “C” accreditation (15%). The teacher respondents are form teachers from grades 1 and 4 at the SD level and from grade 7 at the SMP level with a 5-year minimum teaching experience. The heterogeneity of teachers and areas could probably cause error outside the sample selection. The result of this survey is not intended to depict the opinion of all teachers in Indonesia.

Source: Kompas R&D

 

Education Survey (4) Teachers position among different interests

Education Survey (4)
Teachers position among different interests

 

SURVEI PENDIDIKAN (4) Wajah Guru dalam Tarikan Kepentingan

Kompas p14

Komitmen terhadap siswa, inovasi, dan kreativitas guru merupakan factor pendukung tersebar dalam proses pendidikan. Catharina (48), seorang guru SD swasta di Medan dengan pengalaman mengajar lebih dari 20 tahun, mengaku kerap berinovasi menggunakan alat peraga yang dibuatnya sendiri.

Saya menggandakan gambar-gambar terkait materi pelajaran dari Koran atau buku, lalu saya bagikan kepada siswa agar mereka mudah memahami materi yang diajarkan,” Catharina bertutur

Hal serupa dilakukan Ani Kurniati (38), guru SD negeri di Yogyakarta. Ia berupaya menciptakan suasana santai dan menyenangkan setiap memberikan materi dengan memosisikan diri seperti seorang ibu yang mengasuh anaknya. Tak jarang ia membimbing anak didiknya memahami materi dengan praktik lapangan di luar ruang kelas.

Kedua contoh itu menggambarkan pergulatan guru. Idealnya, guru tak hanya mengajar, tetapi juga menjadi pendidik bagi siswa. Saat menjadi seorang pengajar, guru”hanya” mengajarkan pengetahuan bagi anak didik. Sementara ketika mendidik, guru melibatkan diri pada seluruh proses pembelajaran dan mendorong motivasi anak didik untuk maju.

Menurut Dedi Supriadi dalam jurnal Educational Leadership 1993, lima ukuran seorang guru disebut professional adalah komitmen pada siswa dan proses belajar, penguasaan mendalam dalam mata pelajaran dan cara mengajar, memantau hasil belajar melalui berbagai cara evaluasi, berpikir sistematis dan belajar dari pengalaman, serta menjadi bagian dari masyarakat profesinya.

Dari berbagai criteria idea itu, tampaknya tak seluruh syarat mampu dipenuhi para guru. Dari hasil survey ini terlhat bahwa secara umum ada komitmen yang cukup kuat dari para guru terhadap profesinya. Semangat panggilan untuk menjadi seorang pendidik anak bangsa juga tersirat. Meski demikian, berbagai kelemahan terkait mekanisme pengajaran, cara pandang, ataupun sarana menjadi hambatan.

Upaya – upaya untuk meningkatkan kompetensi professional guru terutama dilakukan kalangan guru-guru yang mengajar di sekolah yang berakreditasi A dan B. adapun guru di sekolah yang berakreditasi C cenderung menerapkan pengajaran konvensional. Sebanyak 40 persen dari guru yang mengajar di sekolah berakreditasi C mengaku jarang menggunakan media peraga dalam mengajar siswanya.

Tak sedikit guru yang masih “memelihara kenyamanan” mengajar dengan semata-mata mengacu pada buku teks. Survey ini menunjukkan, mayoritas guru (70 persen) masih mengandalkan materi bahan ajar yang direkomendasi Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan serta materi dari penerbit buku sebagai sumber informasi pengajaran. Dengan kata lain, pengayaan materi masih minim. separuh lebih responden (61 persen) mengaku jarang memanfaatkan surat kabar atau karya sastra sebagai sarana mengembangkan inovasi pengajaran.

 

Tipe guru

Tipe guru ideal bisa timbuh pada guru yang bertipe moderat atau terbuka. dalam survei ini, indikator guru  moderat adalah memiliki cara pandang lebih terbuka, seperti sepaham bahwa proses belajar antara guru dan siswa bersifat dialogis, proses belajar tak hanya sebatas ruang kelas, dan kompetensi keilmuan guru lebih penting ketimbang hal-hal sertifikasi. Guru dengan tipikal konservatif lebih cenderung berpandangan sebaliknya.

Survei ini menemukan lebih dari separuh guru responden (57,5 persen) mendekati tipikal guru moderat atau terbuka. Sisanya bertipe konservatif. Tipe moderat cenderung terlihat pada guru-guru muda dengan pengalaman mengajar dibawah 15 tahun. Adapun tipe konservatif cenderung pada guru yang berpengalaman mengajar di atas 15 tahun.

Guru yang bertipe moderat cenderung lebih melakukan upaya-upaya meningkatkan kompetensinya dibandingkan guru yang bertipe konservatif. Dalam mempersiapkan rencana pengajaran, misalnya, 31 persen guru bertipe moderat setiap hari melakukan. Hal serupa dilakukan 29 persen guru bertipe konservatif.

Mayoritas guru yang terjaring survei ini mengaku jarang mengikuti pelatihan pendidikan dan pelatihan terkait peningkatan kompetensi guru. Hal itu terutama banyak dialami mereka yang mengajar di sekolah berakreditasi C. Dua pertiga responden di kalangan ini mengaku jarang atau bahkan tidak pernah mengikuti pendidikan dan pelatihan terkait kompetensi. Sebaliknya, 43 persen guru sekolah akreditasi B dan 38 persen guru sekolah akreditasi A mengikuti pendidikan dan pelatihan untuk meningkatkan kompetensi.

Kesejahteraan

Tidak dimungkiri program sertifikasi guru yang digelar sejak beberapa tahun lalu merupakan langkah awal pengakuan negara atas profesionalisme guru. Namun, dari total guru di Indonesia pada 2011 sebanyak 2,92 juta orang, hanya 2,06 juta (70,5 persen) guru yang memenuhi syarat sertifikasi. Berdasarkan data Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 1,1 juta guru sudah bersertifikasi. Dari jumlah itu  baru sekitar 731.000 guru yang menerima tunjangan sertifikasi.

Dari survei ini, hampir semua guru menilai program sertifikasi guru sangat penting. Selain dianggap sebagai penghargaan profesi, sertifikasi juga dimaknai sebagai tambahan penghasilan. Dua pertiga respnden yang memiliki sertifikasi mengaku penghasilan yang diterima sudah sesuai dengan beban mengajar, bahkan 11 persen di antaranya merasa lebih dari cukup dibandingkan dengan beban mengajar. Sementara itu, lebih dari separuh responden yang belum mendapat sertifikasi guru mengaku penghasilan yang diterima lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan beban mengajar.

Hal ini menunjukkan, program sertifikasi guru meningkatkan kesejahteraan guru. Meski demikian, membaiknya kesejahteraan guru tidak serta merta meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan nasional. Separuh bagian guru mengaku kualitas pendidikan saat ini sama saja, bahkan 15 persen di antaranya mengaku lebih buruk dibandingkan dengan kondisi lima tahun lalu. Harus dilakukan upaya tambahan untuk memperbaiki pendidikan nasional tanpa mengurangi apa yang sudah menjadi hak para guru.

(DWI ERIANTO/LITBANG KOMPAS)

National Exams Eliminated for Elementary Schools Next Year

Sindo, page 5

The government has eliminated the national exams for elementary school students next year because it is not in line with the 9 year compulsory education program set by the government.

In order to determine the criteria for elementary school graduates, the government will have an Educational Convention in September to discuss this matter. The government will also get suggestions from teachers, educational experts, and religious academicians on how to summarize the subjects of Bahasa Indonesia, Math, and Science as elementary school exam materials.

Educational experts from UIN in Jakarta added that the elementary school national exams will be eliminated also due to the new curriculum that will be applied in July. The Standard Competency for Graduates in the new curriculum will focus more on skills, attitude, and knowledge included in the new Government Regulation (PP) no. 32/2013.

National Exams Eliminated for Elementary Schools Next Year

National Exams Eliminated for Elementary Schools Next Year

Pelaksanaan UN SD Dihapus Tahun Depan

Sindo, p 5

Pemerintah menetapkan ujian nasional (UN) SD dan sederajat akan dihapus tahun depan. Pelaksanaan UN dinilai tidak sejalan dengan program wajib belajar 9 tahun.

Anggota badan Standar Nasinal Pendidikan (BSNP) Teuku Zakaria mengatakan, penghapusan UN SD diatur melalui PP no 32/2013 tentang Standar Nasional Pendidikan, yang sudah ditandatangani presiden 7 Mei lalu.

Ia menjelaskan, BSNP masih belum merangkai kriteria kelulusan untuk jenjang SD. Secara resmi akan dibahas terlebih dahulu di Konvensi Pendidkan yang digelar September nanti.

Pengamat pendidikan Unversitas Paramadina Mohammad Abduhzen menyetujui penghapusan UN SD karena berbentur dengan wajib belajar 9 tahun.

Sementara itu, Wakl Ketua Komisi X DPR Syamsul Bachri berpendapat lain, menurutnya, bukan hanya UN SD saja yang dihapus namun UN SMP semestinya harus dihapus juga. Alasannya, antara jenjang SD dan SMP masih termasuk Wajar 9 Tahun.

Haryono Suggests Reorganization of Education Ministry

Koran Tempo, page A6

Inspector General at the Education Ministry, Haryono Umar, recommended the Ministry to improve the entire system of the institution. He also urged Education Minister Mohammad Nuh to reorganize the lineup of his officials.

Haryono recommended the removal of three men from their positions including the head of research and development, Khairil Anwar Notodiputro, the head of the center for education evaluation, Hari Setiadi, and member of the national exam tender committee, Chandra.

Aside from that, the Inspectorate also recommended the Ministry to improve the credibility and legitimacy of the national exams plus improve the 2013 curriculum.

Haryono Suggests Reorganization of Education Ministry

Haryono Suggests Reorganization of Education Ministry

Haryono Usulkan Kementerian Pendidikan Dirombak

Koran Tempo, p A6

Inspektorat Jenderal Kemendikbud Haryono Umar mendesak Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan M Nuh agar menata ulang susunan pejabat-pejabatnya.

Saat ini yang dibutuhkan oleh Kemndikbud adalah orang-orang dengan integritas tinggi, bukan hanya memilki kompetensi dan kebetulan.

Ia mengatakan, banyak pegawai negeri di Kemendikbud yang memiliki ntegritas tinggi, tapi tidak mendapat kesempatan menempati posisi strategis. Ia menegaskan kompetensi jika tidak disertai dengan integritas akan membuat institusi tidak berjalan dengan benar.

Selain itu, ia juga merekomendasikan Kemdikbud untuk memperbaiki kredibilitas dan legitimasi ijian nasional serta membanahi Kurikulum 2013. Ia berjanji akan terus menagih realisasi rekomendasi perihal pelaksanaan ujian nasional tersebut.

Officials to be Fired after Exam Results

Media Indonesia, page 22

Education and Culture Minister M. Nuh stated he will carry out the recommendations made by the Inspectorate General of the Ministry regarding the delay of the high school national examinations in 11 provinces.

However, Nuh said that he will be careful in announcing the names of the officials who will be removed from their post because the national exam papers are still in the process of being graded until May 24.

Some deem the announcement of the fired officials to be unfair because only one out of the three names was made public. Nuh asserted that after the announcement of the high school national exam results on May 24, the Ministry will announce the other two officials who will be removed from their post.

Officials to be Fired after Exam Results

Officials to be Fired after Exam Results