Anggaran Besar, tetapi Tanpa Target

Kompas, halaman 12, Sabtu 3 Mei

Sejak konstitusi menetapkan alokasi anggaran fungsi pendidikan minimal 20 persen dari Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara pada 2009, bidang pendidikan selalu bergelimang anggaran. Tahun ini saja jumlahnya mencapai Rp 368 triliun. Sayang, kesenjangan kondisi pendidikan masih kasatmata.

Kesenjangan itu dikarenakan kebijakan pendidikan dibuat berdasarkan anggaran yang tersedia. Akibatnya, kebijakan lebih terasa sebagai proyek yang selalu berganti setiap kali pergantian pemimpin.

Pendekatan input atau pendekatan anggaran dalam penyusunan kebijakan pendidikan seperti itu dinilai keliru. Seharusnya program ataupun kebijakan dirancang atas dasar kebutuhan dan anggarannya yang harus fleksibel menyesuaikan dengan program prioritas atau target capaian pendidikan. Jika itu yang dilakukan, dijamin tidak akan ada anggaran yang terbuang percuma ataupun tidak terserap.

Efisiensi dan efektivitas penggunaan anggaran pendidikan bisa tercapai jika saja pemerintah berani menetapkan target capaian yang terukur sehingga dapat dievaluasi. Jika target capaian yang ditentukan terlebih dahulu, bisa jadi anggaran pendidikan yang dibutuhkan akan lebih atau justru kurang dari 20 persen.

Masalah anggaran pendidikan tersebut menjadi salah satu bahasan diskusi kerja sama Kompas-Persatuan Guru RI (PGRI) ”Mencari Arah Pendidikan Indonesia”, 21 April lalu.

Selama ini, ukuran keberhasilan proses pembelajaran pendidikan formal hanya dilihat dari tingkat kelulusan ujian nasional (UN) dan banyaknya prestasi kemenangan dalam berbagai olimpiade nasional ataupun internasional. Ukuran prestasi pada kedua hal itu pula yang mendasari pemberian insentif atau beasiswa kepada sekolah atau murid. Bagi sekolah dengan nilai UN terendah akan diberi insentif khusus untuk meningkatkan kualitas pendidikannya. Bagi anak-anak pemenang olimpiade, yang jumlahnya tidak banyak, dijanjikan masa depan gemilang dengan beasiswa hingga pendidikan tinggi.

Mengingat semakin dekatnya pasar terbuka, seharusnya pemerintah lebih berani menetapkan target capaian tinggi, bahkan berstandar internasional. Tes internasional, seperti Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), dan Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) menunjukkan kemampuan berhitung (math), sains, dan memahami konteks (reading) berada di peringkat terbawah. Indonesia hanya sedikit lebih baik dari Ghana dan, yang jelas, jauh tertinggal dari tetangga terdekat, seperti Thailand dan Malaysia.

Wajar saja jika hasil pendidikan Indonesia belum sesuai harapan dan belum bisa menggerakkan roda perekonomian dengan lebih cepat. Anggaran fungsi pendidikan justru lebih banyak digunakan untuk birokrasi pendidikan, bukan untuk kepentingan murid atau peningkatan kualitas pendidikan. Karena pendekatan input itu pula, pembuatan program terkesan untuk menghabiskan anggaran saja.

Anggaran fungsi pendidikan bisa tiba-tiba naik pada Juni atau Juli tahun anggaran karena subsidi BBM naik. Lalu, tergopoh-gopohlah Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan membuat rencana penggunaan anggaran. Yang paling masuk akal dan bisa dengan cepat menghabiskan anggaran dalam waktu singkat ialah dengan memberikan bantuan dan beasiswa pendidikan sebanyak-banyaknya.

Anggaran fungsi pendidikan 20 persen dari APBN dinilai tidak efektif meningkatkan kualitas pendidikan karena anggaran itu dibagi-bagi ke kementerian/lembaga lain yang juga menyelenggarakan fungsi pendidikan. Dari total anggaran Rp 368 triliun, alokasi terbesar justru ada di pos transfer daerah hingga Rp 238,6 triliun (mayoritas untuk tunjangan guru/dosen dan gaji). Barulah kemudian alokasi untuk Kemdikbud sebesar Rp 80,6 triliun, Kementerian Agama Rp 42,5 triliun, dan sisanya di 16 kementerian/lembaga lain sebesar Rp 7,05 triliun.

Dari Rp 80,6 triliun anggaran Kemdikbud, ada anggaran yang mengikat sebesar Rp 61,01 triliun untuk bantuan siswa miskin, beasiswa Bidikmisi, bantuan operasional PTN, bantuan operasional menengah, tunjangan guru/dosen, dan gaji. Ada pula program prioritas nasional, seperti wajib belajar sembilan tahun, Kurikulum 2013, pendidikan menengah universal, dan sarana prasarana pendidikan tinggi Rp 18,2 triliun (22,56 persen).

Melihat postur anggaran seperti ini, pemerintah sepertinya masih menitikberatkan pada kuantitas dan akses demi menggenjot angka partisipasi anak di sekolah. Berbagai bantuan dan beasiswa dikucurkan agar semua anak usia sekolah bisa bersekolah dan mampu bertahan selama mungkin supaya tidak putus sekolah.

Dari pandangan pemerintah selama ini, dampak pemanfaatan anggaran fungsi pendidikan 20 persen dari APBN itu memang diakui belum terasa seluruhnya karena baru dimulai tahun 2009. Meski demikian, Kemdikbud mencatat capaian yang mulai terlihat, seperti kenaikan angka partisipasi kasar (APK) perguruan tinggi dari 18-19 persen tahun 2009 menjadi 27 persen pada 2012. Dampak anggaran fungsi pendidikan itu membutuhkan proses panjang, tak cukup hanya lima tahun.

Big Budget, But No Target

Kompas page 12, Saturday 3 May

Since the constitution set a budget allocation of at least 20 percent to education in the 2009 State Budget, the education sector always wallows in a lot of fund. This year alone the budget reaches IDR 368 trillion. Unfortunately, gap remains a visible condition in education.

The gap is due to the educational policy based on the available budget. As a result, the policy is considered more as a project which always changes, following successions.

Such input or budget-based approach in designing education policies is deemed misleading. A program or policy should be instead designed on the basis of needs, and the budget should be made flexible and adjusted to education priorities or targets. If such policies are applied, there will be no budget wasted or leaved unabsorbed.

Efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the education budget could be achieved if only the government dared to set measurable performance targets that can be evaluated. If performance targets are determined in advance, the education budget will be more or less than 20 percent.

The education budget was one of the problems discussed in cooperation discussion between Kompas and Indonesian Teachers Association (PGRI) entitled “Finding the Direction of Indonesian Education”, 21 April.

So far, the success of the learning process in formal education is only measured based on achievements in national exams (UN) and achievements in various national and international Olympiads. It is on that bases incentives or scholarships are granted to schools or students. Schools with the lowest achievement in UN should be granted special incentives to improve their quality. Olympic winners, whose number is not many, are granted scholarships until higher education for their bright future.

Ahead of the open market, the government should have more courage to set high, or even international standard, performance targets. There international tests, namely Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) showed that Indonesian children in numeracy (math), science, and context understanding (reading ) is ranked the lowest. Indonesia is only slightly better than Ghana and, obviously, far behind the nearest neighbors, such as Thailand and Malaysia.

Therefore, it is understandable that Indonesian education has yet to reach the expectation and is still unable to drive the economy to move more quickly. Education budget is more widely used for education bureaucracy, instead of for the benefits of students or for improving the quality of education. That input approach gives an impression that education programs are designed to spend the budget.

The Education Budget can suddenly increase in June or July thanks to the increase of fuel subsidies. Then, the Ministry of Education and Culture shall be in hurry to prepare plans to spend the budget. The most reasonable and quickest way to spend the budget in a short time is to provide assistances and educational scholarships as much as possible.

The 20% education budget in the state budget is considered ineffective to improve the quality of education because the budget is divided into ministries / institutions which also organize educational functions. Of the total budget of IDR 368 trillion, the biggest allocation is given to regional transfer area, reaching IDR 238.6 trillion (mostly for the benefit of teachers/lecturers and salaries). The Ministry of Education and Culture receive IDR 80.6 trillion; Ministry of Religious Affair receives IDR 42.5 trillion, and the 16 other ministries/institutions receive IDR 7.05 trillion.

From the IDR 80.6 trillion budget receive by Ministry of Education and Culture, binding budget of IDR 61.01 trillion shall be allocated to help poor students and to provide Bidikmisi scholarships, operational assistances for state universities, medium operational supports, and teacher/lecturer allowances and salaries. There are also national priority programs such as the nine-year compulsory education, the 2013 Curriculum, the universal secondary education, and higher education facilities and infrastructures of IDR 18.2 trillion (22.56 percent).

Considering such budget posture, the government seems to still focus on quantity and access in order to boost child participation rate in schools. Various assistances and scholarships are provided so that all school-age children can attend schools as long as possible at schools.

From the view of the government, the impacts of utilization of the 20 percent education budget have not been entirely recognized because it has just started in 2009. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Education and Culture has noted several achievements, including the increase in gross enrollment rate (GER ) of universities from 18-19 percent in 2009 to 27 percent in 2012. The impacts of the education budget require a long process. Five years are not enough.

Big Budget, But No Target

Big Budget, But No Target

 

Daerah Siasati Aturan 20 Persen

Kompas, halaman 1, Sabtu 3 Mei

Anggaran fungsi pendidikan sebesar 20 persen dari APBN dan APBD tidak efektif karena masih banyak daerah yang ”nakal”. Hampir semua kabupaten/kota tidak mengalokasikan anggaran pendidikan sebesar 20 persen dari APBD murninya.

Pemerintah daerah juga memasukkan kucuran dana pendidikan dari APBN sebagai bagian dari 20 persen anggaran pendidikan dalam APBD. Alasannya, dana pendidikan dari pusat dihitung sebagai pendapatan atau pemasukan daerah. Hal itu dikemukakan Menteri Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Mohammad Nuh, Jumat (2/5), bertepatan dengan Hari Pendidikan Nasional.

Sekalipun anggaran pendidikan naik, masih ada warga yang belum menikmati pendidikan dasar. Berdasarkan data yang dihimpun Litbang Kompas, pada 2012 terdapat 5,88 persen anak yang tidak atau belum sekolah. Data Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan menyebutkan, hingga 2013, pada jenjang ekonomi terendah, sebanyak 13 persen warga Indonesia tidak tamat SD.

Nuh mengatakan, jika provinsi dan kabupaten/kota betul-betul mengalokasikan 20 persen dari APBD murni (tidak termasuk dana pusat), daerah dapat membebaskan masyarakat dari biaya pendidikan. Nuh menambahkan, pendidikan bisa tanpa biaya jika sekolah atau anak mendapat bantuan operasional sekolah (BOS) dari pusat, provinsi, dan kabupaten/kota. BOS pusat sudah memenuhi 70 persen biaya pendidikan. Berarti daerah hanya membayar sisanya.

Dari total anggaran fungsi pendidikan tahun 2014 sebesar Rp 368,9 triliun, sebagian besar, yakni Rp 238,6 triliun (64,7 persen), ditransfer ke daerah. Adapun anggaran Kemdikbud ”hanya” Rp 80,6 triliun, dana fungsi pendidikan di Kementerian Agama Rp 42,5 triliun, dan di kementerian/lembaga lain Rp 7 triliun.

Menurut Nuh, persoalannya pada rendahnya kemampuan pengelolaan anggaran pendidikan di daerah. Untuk menyelesaikan masalah pengelolaan anggaran pendidikan, sudah disusun revisi UU Nomor 32 Tahun 2004 tentang Otonomi Daerah. Revisi itu untuk mendesain kembali pembagian tugas dan wewenang pelaksana pendidikan dari yang semula desentralisasi sepenuhnya menjadi tanggung jawab bersama antara kabupaten/kota, provinsi, dan pusat.

Selain itu, sebagian besar anggaran Kemdikbud, misalnya, dialokasikan untuk gaji dosen, tunjangan profesi non-PNS, tunjangan khusus bagi guru di daerah khusus, dan tunjangan fungsional guru non-PNS yang belum mendapat sertifikasi.

Setelah uji materi UU Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional di Mahkamah Konstitusi pada 2008, gaji pendidik dihitung dalam 20 persen anggaran pendidikan. Akibatnya, anggaran untuk program pendidikan lain lebih kecil.

Ketua Umum Pengurus Besar Persatuan Guru Republik Indonesia Sulistiyo mengatakan, anggaran pendidikan hanya akal-akalan karena memasukkan komponen gaji guru yang besar. Dengan cara itu pula pemerintah daerah mengklaim memenuhi ketentuan 20 persen. Kenyataannya, dana itu sebagian besar untuk gaji guru dan itu pun didapat dari pemerintah pusat lewat dana alokasi umum (DAU). Total DAU APBN 2014 sebesar Rp 135 triliun.

Regions Outwitting the 20 Percent Rule

Kompas page 1, Saturday 3 May

The 20% budget allocated to education from the State Budget and Regional Budgets has not been effective yet for many regions trying to get “naughty”. Almost all regencies/municipalities fail to allocate 20% of their budgets to education.

Local governments has also also incorporated the fund from the state budget (APBN) as part of the 20% education budget in their regional budget (APBD). They consider the education fund from the Central Government as part of their regional income, said the Minister of Minister of Education and Culture Mohammad Nuh, Friday (2/5), coinciding with the National Education Day.

Although the education budget goes up, there are still people who do not enjoy basic education. Based on data collected by Kompas Research and Development, in 2012 some 5.88% of children have yet to enjoy schools. Data from the Ministry of Education and Culture said that, until 2013, at the lowest economic level, as much as 13 percent of Indonesian people did not complete primary school.

Nuh said, if provinces and regencies/municipalities have been truly allocated 20 percent of their regional budgets to education (excluding the fund from the central govt.), Regions can provide free education to their people. Nuh added that education can be free from any cost if schools or children get School Operational Assistances (BOS) from the Central, provincial, and regental/municipal governments. The Central Govt. has provided 70% of BOS. Thus, regions shall provide the reminder.

Most of the total education budget in 2014 reaching Rp 368.9 trillion, amounting to $ 238.6 billion (64.7 percent), is transferred to regions. The budgets under control of the Ministry of Education and Culture, the Ministry of Religious Affairs, and other ministries/institution are “only” Rp 80.6 trillion, Rp 42.5 trillion, Rp 7 trillion, respectively.

According to Nuh, the problem lies on low ability of regions to manage education budget. To solve the problem, a revision to Law No. 32 of 2004 on Regional Autonomy has been prepared. The Revision is aimed at redesigning the distribution of duties and authority in education from full decentralization to the shared responsibility between regental/municipal, provincial, and central governments.

In addition, most of the budget of the Ministry of Education and Culture, for instances, shall be allocated to pay salaries of lecturers, profesional allowances of non-civil servants, and special allowances for teachers in special regions as well as functional allowances of for non-civil servant teachers not certified yet.

Following the judicial review of Law No. 20 of 2003 on National Education System at the Constitutional Court in 2008, educators’ salaries are calculated in 20 percent of the education budget. As a result, the budgets for the other education program get smaller.

Chairman of the Indonesian Teachers Association Sulistiyo said that the education budget is only a trick because it inserts teacher salary component in huge size. Actually this is the way regional governments claim their compliance with the 20% provision. In fact, most of the fund comes from the salaries of teachers and it was obtained from the central government through the General Allocation Fund (DAU). Total DAU in the State Budget is IDR 135 trillion in 2014.

Regions Outwitting the 20 Percent Rule

Regions Outwitting the 20 Percent Rule

Dana Pelatihan Guru di Sumatera Selatan Masih Kurang

Kompas, Halaman 12

Dana pelatihan guru di Sumatera Selatan untuk pemberlakuan Kurikulum 2013 masih kurang Rp 7 Milyar – Rp 10 Milyar. Akibatnya, biaya pelatihan sekitar 18.000 guru di Sumsel belum tersedia. Padahal, Kurikulum 2013 akan diberlakukan penuh di Sumsel mulai tahun ajaran baru pada Juli 2014.

Kepala Lembaga Penjaminan Mutu Pendidikan (LPMP) Sumsel Yaswardi mengatakan, Kurikulum 2013 baru diterapkan di sejumlah sekolah percontohan. Meskipun demikian, mulai tahun ajaran 2014, kurikulum baru itu akan diterapkan disemua sekolah dan semua tingkatan di Sumatera Selatan.

Yaswardi mengatakan, jumlah semua guru di Sumsel saat ini sekitar 110.000 orang. Dari jumlah itu, sekitar 66.000 ditargetkan mendapat pelatihan Kurikulum 2014. Sedangkan anggaran LPMP Sumsel dari pemerintah pusat hanya sekitar Rp 50 Milyar.

Teacher Training Fund in South Sumatra still Insufficient

Kompas, Page 12

Teacher training fund for application of the 2013 curriculum in South Sumatra is suffering from a deficit of some Rp7 – Rp8 billion. As a result, cost for trainings of some 18,000 teacher in the province has not been available. In fact, the 2013 curriculum will be fully implemented in the Province in the next new academic year in July 2014.

Head of Institute for Educational Quality Assurance (LPM) of South Sumatra, Yaswardi said that the 2013 curriculum has just implemented in several pioneering schools. However, as of the 2014 academic year, this new curriculum will have been applied at all schools of all levels in South Sumatra.

Yaswardi said that the province has now a total of 110,000 teachers, some 66,000 of whom are targets of the 2014 curriculum training. In fact, for the training, LPMP of the province receives only Rp50 billion from the Central Government.

Teacher Training Fund in South Sumatra still Insufficient

Teacher Training Fund in South Sumatra still Insufficient

Jambi Regional Government Removes Fee Collection, Principals Went on Protest

Republika, Page 5 (2)

The Jambi City Government’s decision to remove committee fee collection in schools in the city has received protests from several principals. In response, Jambi Mayor Sy Fasha, urged the head of local education office to make a list of the protesting principals.

Sy asserted that any principals who have problems with the removal of the fee collection, are the ones who have problems with “initial capital” they had spent to become a principal.

In general, many students’ parents are unable to pay for the fee collection imposed by school committee. Furthermore, the Jambi Regional Government has even considered establishing free education for state high schools located in the city in 2014.

Jambi Regional Government Removes Fee Collection, Principals Went on Protest

Jambi Regional Government Removes Fee Collection, Principals Went on Protest